Visualizing content and language seems to have added some spice to the classes I teach. The Language Arts Learning Wall on tragedy in G10 has led my co-teachers and myself to experiment with alternative strategies to studying literature, mainly by finding ways to cover the unit activities by varying on different ways of learning. Alison Stanton’s blog Learning styles and EAL students mentions how she had positive results using different learning strategies too. Part of the key may be that variety keeps students more engaged in their learning, although principally it allows different types of learners to successfully discover how they best learn.
Most of the secondary EAL students I work with struggle in writing academic or formal styles, whilst verbally being fluent in English. Persuasive language, citing and analyzing quotes, justifying arguments are difficult and require higher levels of language. One of my most recent challenges has been to invent ways to support students who need more variety in their language usage. Whilst I was reflecting on common areas of difficulty in students writing (to some extent across all grades), I created a list of conjunctions and transition words. Next I printed copies on A3 paper, laminated them and shared them out amongst all the secondary English and Social Studies classrooms (these classrooms are the subjects where EAL do most of the inclusion support). Co-teachers welcomed the posters, as did the rest of the EAL department. Someone then suggested another poster with a variety of sentence starters would be useful too, so I made some. It then occurred to me that even though I was sharing the PDF of the posters with EAL students, it would be easier to print out a few more copies for each class, laminate them and have them as tools on the desks when students need them for specific writing tasks. Students have welcomed these lists and with practice they will develop ways of expressing ideas, arguments and opinions better. Time permitting it would be interesting to sort phrases into different levels of language complexity, just as James Schofield describes in his blog “Sorting persuasive phrases”.
Meaningful leaning requires a secure and inspiring environment where displays are therefore meaningful. Do classroom walls reflect a teacher or the whole class? Again, a re-occurring thought I have when I write these blogs is why do secondary classroom walls seem colder and less impressive to elementary? It seems like a wasted tool to me. This week I came across an article/study on “Usage of Multimedia Visual Aids in the English Language Classroom”, by M. Ramírez García. It covers most types of visual aids for learning, but I was particularly interested in the ideas it covered on displays as these were linked to the G10 Learning Walls.
Visual aids, when integrated into the lesson plan through media, attract students ‘attention to the topic presented in the class, enhance and facilitate comprehension of grammar and language, increase students’ motivation, as well as help students to memorize the new vocabulary and structures. (M.Ramírez, p.6)
Many of the classrooms at RAS do not have meaningful displays. Students spend a lot of time in classrooms and the chances are that they will drift off at some point and stare at what’s on the wall during the school year. Another article I came across mentioned “clutter walls”, something I realized I needed to avoid with the G10 Learning Walls. Studies suggest too much or chaotic displays can counter affect students performance.
“There are three ways to decorate your classroom to maximize learning: (1) Include posters which provide an opportunity for more passive absorption of material; (2) Provide an area where student work is displayed; (3) Include a section which develops a class sense of community such as an area where goals or objectives are posted.” (J.Lober)
On the learning walls, one can’t just keep adding on information but considerable things can be replaced as one moves through the unit. This is a great reflection activity as students can determine what needs to be removed and why. It could be a question, image or comment, in the case of the Tragedy Wall, we moved on from the Greeks to Shakespeare. The posters on sentence starters and persuasive language develop specific areas of writing and have a purpose, they are not simply decorating the classroom.
My final point elaborates the other side of my teaching. As a co-teacher and language teacher I find myself engaging further into developing students ATL skills. I would even be willing to suggest that ELLs with good ATL skills learn quicker than those who are weak in this area. Tommas Houterman refers to the Social Learning Diagram on one of his blogs. Learning becomes a lot more meaningful when you have the skills and guidance to do it efficiently. All of the EAL students I support progress according to their ATLs, those who are slower in progressing have difficulty organizing their workload and time, taking notes, doing homework and so forth. Incorporating ATLs into curriculum is just as important as the content, thus it’s not what you teach, but how you teach it.